The Influence of Stone Size, Skin to Stone Distance and Hydronephrosis on Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Session and Shock Wave Numbers in Ureteral Stones

Basri Cakiroglu, Erkan Eyyupoglu, Tuncay Tas, Orhun Sinanoglu, Ismet Aydin Hazar, Mustafa Bahadir Can Balci, Suleyman Hilmi Aksoy, Bekir Sami Uyanik


Background: To evaluate the impact of stone size, grade of hydronephrosis induced by the stone and skin to stone distance (SSD) on the shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcome in terms of SWL session and shock wave (SW) numbers in patients with ureteral stones.

Methods: Between June 2011 and December 2011, data of 80 patients undergoing SWL for ureteral stones were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups according to hydronephrotic grades (group 1, grade 1 hydronephrosis; group 2, grade 2 hydronephrosis; group 3, grade 3 hydronephrosis) and into two groups according to stone size (group 1, stone size = or < 10 mm and group 2, stone size > 10 mm). The effect of hydronephrotic grade, SSD and stone size on SWL sessions and SW rates were studied. The impact of the stone size on hydronephrosis was also analyzed.

Result: Of the 80 patients undergoing SWL, 24 were female and 56 were male. The mean age, stone size, number of sessions, SW rate and SSD were 37.7 (16 - 73), 9.6 mm (6 - 19), 1.65 (1 - 4), 3,812 (1,200 - 8,500) and 9.6 cm (5 - 15) respectively. Thirty-five patients had grade 1, 29 grade 2 and 16 grade 3 hydronephrosis. Twenty-eight patients had upper, 19 mid and 33 lower ureteral stones. There were significant correlation between stone size and SW number (r = 0.513, P < 0.001), and between stone size and session number (r = 0.609, P < 0.001). The correlation between hydronephrotic grade, SW and session numbers was also significant (r = 0.472, P < 0.001 and r = 0.441, P < 0.001). There was no correlation between SSD and SW and session numbers. Four patients with stone size more than 10 mm and grade 2-3 hydronephrosis had unsuccessful SWL outcome.

Conclusion: The grade of hydronephrosis and stone size are independent predictive factors for SW and SWL session numbers and indirectly for treatment outcome. SSD was not found to be predictive.

World J Nephrol Urol. 2013;2(2):60-64


Ureteral stone; SWL; Hydronephrosis; Stone size; Skin to stone distance

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics






World Journal of Nephrology & Urology, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1239 (print), 1927-1247 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada
© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.