Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Egypt: Potential Risk Factors

Sania Amr, Christopher A. Loffredo, Kathleen M. McClain, Bhaskar Kallakury, Yun-Ling Zheng


Background: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the urinary bladder have been well studied worldwide, but little is known about adenocarcinoma aside from its clinical features. Our objective was to examine associations between adenocarcinoma and known risk factors for UC and SCC in Egypt.

Methods: We used data from our multi-center case-control study in Egypt where questionnaires inquired about tobacco smoking, schistosomiasis and other exposures by 101 cases of bladder adenocarcinoma and 3,737 population-based controls. Logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of these associations.

Results: The mean (SD) age for adenocarcinoma was 55.3 (9.8) and 54.2 (11.3) among men and women, respectively. There was an association with schistosomiasis, albeit higher for women than for men (AOR (95% CI): 4.58 (2.13 - 9.86) and 1.77 (1.05 - 2.98), respectively). Among men, smoking either cigarettes or water pipes was associated with adenocarcinoma (1.78 (0.85 - 3.75) or 1.97 (0.79 - 4.91), respectively), and the highest risk (3.34 (1.38 - 8.09)) was among those who smoked both water pipes and cigarettes.

Conclusion: Smoking both cigarette and water pipe tobacco was associated with increased risk for adenocarcinoma of the bladder among males in this study, as was a history of schistosomiasis in both men and women.

World J Nephrol Urol. 2015;4(3):227-231


Bladder cancer; Adenocarcinoma; Tobacco smoking; Schistosomiasis; Epidemiology

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